A well-known and already widespread example of a targeted and personalised cancer treatment is Trastuzumab or Herceptin®. Trastuzumab specifically blocks the HER-2 protein and is administered to breast cancer patients who have a tumour in which the HER-2 protein is present. The drug may be administered separately or in conjunction with chemotherapy. Thanks to this treatment, thousands of patients now have a better chance of beating their disease.

Another strong example is Imatinib or Gleevec®. This therapy focuses on a several specific proteins that play a role in a number of cancer types. Imatinib is developed based on the data on a specific underlying genetic defect. Imatinib inhibits signalling in cancer cells or blocks it altogether. The drug is used for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukaemia, gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) and dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (a form of skin cancer). As the drug acts mostly on the BCR-ABL protein, Imatinib is most efficient in treating cancers in which the BCR-ABL protein is over-active.